A ray tracer emits a ray from each pixel toward the scene to determine the color of the pixel, the process of computing the color can be split in three parts

*ray generation*, the origin and direction of each pixel ray is computed*ray intersection*, the ray finds the closest object intersecting the viewing ray*shading*, where the intersection point, surface normal and other information is used to determine the color of the pixel

A ray can be represented with a 3D parametric line from the eye $\mathbf{e}$ to a point $\mathbf{s}$ on the image plane as

Note that

- $\mathbf{p}(0) = \mathbf{e}$
- $\mathbf{p}(1) = \mathbf{s}$
- if $0 < t_1 < t_2$ then $\mathbf{p}(t_1)$ is closer to $\mathbf{e}$ than $\mathbf{p}(t_2)$
- if $t < 0$ then $\mathbf{p}(t)$ is behind $\mathbf{e}$

## Camera coordinate system

All the rays start from the origin of an orthonormal coordinate frame known as the camera/eye coordinate system, in this frame the camera is looking at the negative $\mathbf{w}$ axis

The coordinate system is built from

- the
*viewpoint*$\mathbf{e}$ which is at the origin of the camera coordinate system - the
*view direction*which is $\mathbf{-w}$ - the
*up vector*which is used to construct a basis that has $\mathbf{v}$ and $\mathbf{w}$ in the plane defined by the*view direction*and the*up vector*

## Ray generation

### Pixel coordinates

The image dimensions is defined with four numbers

- $l, r$, the position of the left and right edges
- $t, b$, the position of the top and bottom edges

Note that the coordinates are expressed in the camera coordinate frame defined in a plane parallel to the $w=0$ plane (the $w=0$ plane is defined by the point $\mathbf{e}$ and the vectors $\mathbf{u}$ and $\mathbf{v}$)

The image has to be fitted within a rectangle of $n_x \times n_y$ pixels, for example the pixel $(0,0)$ has the position $(l + 0.5 \tfrac{r - l}{n_x}, b + 0.5 \tfrac{t - b}{n_y})$ note that the half-pixel measurement times pixel-dimension is because of the way a pixel is defined (see rendering), a pixel with coordinates $(x, y)$ will have the position

### Orthographic view

For an orthographic view all the rays will have the direction $-\mathbf{w}$, there isn’t a particular viewpoint however we can define all the rays to be emitted from the $w=0$ plane using the pixel’s image-plane position as the ray’s starting point

### Perspective view

For a perspective view all the rays will have the same origin $e$ but the image-plane is not located at $w=0$ but at some distance $d$ in the $-\mathbf{w}$ direction, this time each ray will have a varying direction based on the location of the pixel’s image-plane position respect to $e$

## Ray intersection

Once a ray in the form $\mathbf{e} + t\mathbf{d}$ is generated we find the first intersection with an object where $t > 0$, whenever there are many objects that intersect a ray the intersection point with the lowest $t$ is returned

The following pseudocode tests for “hits”

```
ray = e + td
t = infinity
for each `object` in the scene
if `object` is hit by `ray` and `ray's t` < `t`
hit object = `object`
t = `ray's t`
return hit t < infinity
```

## Shading

Once the visible surface is known the next step is to compute the value of the pixel using a **shading model**, which can be made out of simple heuristics or elaborate numeric computations

A shading model is designed to *capture the process of light reflection on a surface*, the important variables in this process are

- $\mathbf{p}$ (intersection point) - the intersection point between a surface and a ray
- $\mathbf{l}$ (light direction) - a unit vector pointing from the surface towards a light source, computed by normalizing the vector between the intersection point $\mathbf{p}$ and the light source position $\mathbf{l_s}$

- $\mathbf{v}$ (view direction) - a unit vector pointing from the surface towards the place the ray is emitted from, it’s computed by normalizing the vector between the intersection point $\mathbf{p}$ and the ray origin $\mathbf{ray_{origin}}$

- $\mathbf{n}$ (surface normal) - a unit vector perpendicular to the surface at the point where the reflection is taking place
- other characteristics of the light source and the surface depending on the shading model

### Lambertian shading

One of the simplest shading models discovered by Lambert in the 18th century, the amount of energy from a light source that falls on a surface depends on the angle of the surface to the light

- A surface facing directly the light receives maximum illumination
- A surface tangent to the light receives no illumination
- A surface facing away from the light receives no illumination

Thus the illumination is proportional to the cosine of the angle between $\mathbf{n}$ and $\mathbf{l}$ i.e. $\mathbf{n \cdot l} = \cos{\theta}$, the color of the pixel is then

Where

- $k_d$ is the diffuse coefficient, a characteristic of the surface
- $I$ is the intensity of the light source

Additional notes of this model

- The model is view independent
- The color of the surface appears to have a very matte, chalky appearance

### Blinn-Phong shading

Many surfaces show some degree of highlights (shininess) or *specular reflections* that appear to move as the viewpoint changes, the idea is to produce reflections when $\mathbf{v}$ and $\mathbf{l}$ are positioned symmetrically across the surface normal

- the half vector $\mathbf{h}$ is a unit vector that goes through the bisector of the angle between $\mathbf{v}$ and $\mathbf{l}$

Also

- if $\mathbf{h}$ is near $\mathbf{n}$ then the specular component should be bright, if it’s far away it should be dim, therefore the illumination is proportional to the cosine of the angle between $\mathbf{n}$ and $\mathbf{h}$ i.e. $\mathbf{n \cdot h} = \cos {\theta}$
- the specular component decreases exponentially when $\mathbf{h}$ is far away from $\mathbf{n}$, therefore the result is taken to the $p$ power, $p > 1$ to make it decrease faster

The color of the pixel is then

Where

- $k_s$ is the specular coefficient, a characteristic of the surface
- $I$ is the intensity of the light source
- $p$ is a variable that controls how fast the result decreases

Note that the color of the pixel is the overall contribution of both the lambertian shading model and the blinn-phong shading model

### Ambient shading

Surfaces that receive no illumination are rendered completely black, to avoid this a constant component is added to the shading model, the color depends entirely on the object hit with no dependence on the surface geometry

Where

- $k_a$ is the surface ambient coefficient
- $I_a$ is the ambient light intensity

- Shirley, P. and Ashikhmin, M. (2005). Fundamentals of computer graphics. Wellesley, Mass.: AK Peters.